In its early years, SAP's R/3 system was primarily transaction-oriented,
designed for rich functionality and high performance. Now, with the development
of ABAP Objects and the new ABAP Workbench, SAP has focused its efforts
on creating a powerful new environment for developers that offers some
major benefits in both look and function. The Release 4.6A/B Workbench
and its Object Navigator (transaction SE80) gives developers a new, Web-like
visual framework that allows developers to:
- Display object lists, such as ABAP programs, by means of controls
so that you can simultaneously view their overall structure, as well
as specific details about their make-up
- Easily access reusable ABAP classes
- Navigate from one development object to another
- Explore multiple development objects simultaneously
- Move from one tool to another without using transaction codes
These features are designed to streamline
your development efforts and help you produce more reliable code.
In this article, we take you through the
steps you can use to access and navigate objects via the Object Navigator,
with a brief description of how the Object Navigator integrates the functions
of the ABAP Editor and the SAP Class Builder. Finally, we turn our attention
to the Web Application Builder, which, as of Release 4.6C, offers the
functionality of the former SAP@Web Studio. The Web Application Builder
is now an integral part of this new visual framework. (For more information
on ABAP Workbench, see www.sap.com/solutions/
Control Technology and ABAP Objects
It is now common to find that the best approach to creating a powerful
user interface with various control elements (such as tree and grid
controls) and sophisticated user interaction techniques (like drag
and drop) is best implemented using object technology. User interface
elements are naturally perceived as programmatic objects that respond
to method invocations based on user interaction. The advent of ABAP
Objects, SAP's extension of its 4GL ABAP/4, has allowed developers
to set up a control framework and infrastructure that is platform-neutral
- i.e., it executes without code change in a Windows, Java, or pure
Many R/3 applications have used the
control framework to add navigation support in tree controls or
to replace old-fashioned, full-screen lists with SAP's new ABAP
List Viewer (ALV) grid control. The use of control technology does
not force developers to rewrite the application code in object syntax,
but simply offers developers a hierarchy of reusable ABAP classes.
You can easily access those classes if you dynamically create objects
and later invoke methods on them. Event handling is done using event
handler classes that react to user interaction, such as a mouse-click
Exploring the Object Navigator
In this section, we take you step-by-step through the Object Navigator,
from accessing objects, to working with multiple objects, and finally
to some of the shortcuts and features that you can use to speed up development
time and increase efficiency.
Starting the Object Navigator
When you first start the Object Navigator (transaction SE80), the system
displays the initial Workbench screen that you see displayed in Figure
1. In this example, since no object has been selected so far, the
default Workbench graphic appears in the window on the right. (You can
change that graphic by customizing your personal user settings as described
in the section user setting dialog options on page 69.)
||Start Screen of the Object Navigator
On the left of the Workbench screen you
will find a resizable docking container that is separated into two areas.
The upper area offers a field where you can select an object list. The
lower area displays the selected object list. (The dropdown menu at the
top of the selection area, shown in Figure 2, displays valid object
list types to choose from, such as Program, Development class,
etc.) To open an object in Object Navigator, follow these four steps:
||Available Object List Types
- Select the object type. In this case, we select Program from
the object list.
- Type the name of the program, in this case SAPMSDM1, in the field
displayed in Figure 3.
- Press the Display button (the eyeglasses icon) to the right
of the program name, as highlighted in Figure 3. The structure of the
program appears in the lower area as a tree control, as shown in Figure
- To further expand the structure, select an item - for example, the
screen 0100 - and right-click. A dropdown menu will appear, as shown
in Figure 5. These menus are context-specific, so you will encounter
different menus depending on the type of program element (screens, GUI
||The Display Button in the Program Dialog
||Tree Controls in the Object Navigator
||Context Menus in the Object Navigator
The dropdown context menu gives a quick indication of the functionality
that a particular development object supports. Note that the context menus
in Object Navigator have taken on much of the functionality that was available
in the application toolbar in previous releases.
Displaying an Object
To display an object, simply point and click. For example, if you select
the program name SAPMSDM1 in the object list, you find the display shown
in Figure 6, which moves you automatically into the ABAP Editor.
Once there, the system displays the structure of the program and the program's
code simultaneously. This improves on previous releases, which force you
to switch between detail and overview using the BACK (F3) button.
Even if you choose to display the code via transaction SE38, you can later
attach the structure display using the Hierarchy button, highlighted in
||Overview and Detail of an Object
||The Hierarchy Button in the Application Toolbar
Using Object Lists to Quickly Find Development Objects and Leverage
As we have shown, if you select an item from the object list, or select
Display or Change from the available context menu, the corresponding
object will be displayed in the detail screen to the right of the navigational
frame. However, the Object Navigator not only can display the entire structure
of a single object, it also allows you to work with several object lists
in parallel. Browsing and navigating object lists allows you to quickly
find your development objects or leverage reusable software components
such as the control framework classes.
To give you a better understanding of this
feature, we will take you through a scenario that uses the Workbench's
Class Builder to take advantage of these control framework classes. (For
a brief overview of the object architecture of the ABAP Workbench, see
the sidebar "Object-Oriented Architecture of the New Workbench" on page
62. For a thorough analysis, the complete framework is documented in our
book Controls Technology, available at http://shop.sap.com.
See the description at the end of this article.)
Object-Oriented Architecture of the New Workbench
The navigation and user interface architecture of the new ABAP
Workbench is an object-oriented framework where new tools can be
quickly integrated. An example is the Web Application Builder, which
is an integral part of the ABAP Workbench.
The Workbench Manager
The framework of the ABAP Workbench is built around a central
component, the Workbench Manager (see Figure 8). The Workbench
Manager is the mediator between the various types of Workbench tools,
such as browsers (e.g., Object Navigator); editors (e.g., Class
Builder and ABAP Editor); and GUI builders (Screen and Menu Painter).
Because linking the Workbench tools directly would lead to a very
inflexible architecture, the Workbench Manager is used instead.
It controls every navigation operation inside the Workbench. Each
navigation step is stored on the Workbench Manager's navigation
stack and can be traced back to the very beginning of the Workbench
session. The Workbench Manager is also responsible for finding and
launching the desired tool whenever a navigation operation is executed.
||Object-Oriented Workbench Architecture
All tools that participate in the Workbench navigation framework
must be registered in the Workbench registry, which appears in Figure
8. To communicate with the tools in a uniform way, the Workbench
Manager carries out navigation operations that are implemented as
Workbench requests. A Workbench request is characterized by three
- An object type - e.g., Program
- An object name - e.g., SAPMSDM1
- An operation - e.g., DISPLAY
The various tools create Workbench requests to tell the Workbench
Manager to launch another tool.
A typical control flow for processing a request is depicted in
Figure 9. Imagine an end user who selects a form routine
from a program structure while the dictionary transaction is still
active. In this case, the Object Navigator creates a Workbench request
(the target request) to display the include that contains the desired
form routine. Taking this request, the Workbench Manager looks up
the registry and determines the appropriate tool (the ABAP Editor,
in our example).
||Typical Control Flow in the
Next, the Workbench Manager recognizes
the currently active tool (the dictionary) and collects all information
necessary for traceback. This includes the current Workbench request
(edit dictionary object) plus some additional context information
(cursor position). This information is stored on the navigation
stack. Then, the Workbench Manager tells the active tool to terminate
itself. The tool gains control to send a Save or Cancel
dialog. Upon completion, the Workbench Manager launches the ABAP
Editor and tells it to display the form.
Workbench Implementation and Interfaces
From an implementation point of view, every component in Figure
8 is implemented as a global ABAP class. Workbench requests and
the request stack are implemented as ABAP classes as well.
The contract between the Workbench
Manager and the individual tools is defined through ABAP interfaces.
The interface also allows the Workbench Manager to call the tools
in a generic manner (i.e., to process a Workbench request). The
interface also allows the tools to access the Workbench Manager,
since a reference to the Manager is part of the interface. The Workbench
Manager is primarily a background instance, although it provides
layout and window management services.
The tools that participate in the
navigation framework can, of course, look different: some visualize
themselves in ordinary dynpros, some live in docked control containers,
and others use modal dialog boxes. The Workbench Manager puts a
common abstraction layer on top of these different visualization
techniques, and the tool displays itself in a prepared graphical
environment. In other words, the Object Navigator creates a tree
control to display the nodes of an object list, but the Workbench
Manager offers the control container docked to the left of the current
The control framework is a set of reusable,
global ABAP classes that are linked in an inheritance hierarchy. We'll
first look at the reusable class CL_GUI_COLUMN_TREE.
To access the control framework and to
make changes using the Class Builder, take the following steps:
- In the object list selection field, select the object list type Class.
- Type CL_GUI_COLUMN_TREE and press ENTER. The system displays
the structure of that class.
- Under Method, select ADD_ COLUMN.
- Press the Signature button, which we've indicated in Figure
||The Class Builder in the Object Navigator
You seamlessly enter the Class Builder,
as shown by the window's title in Figure 10. On the left are all available
attributes and methods of that class. Public access is indicated by a
green stoplight next to the method's name. The method's code is displayed
in the lower right pane using an editor control. The list of input/output
parameters in the upper right pane uses an ABAP List Viewer (ALV) grid
control for display.
The CL_GUI_COLUMN_TREE class we selected
provides methods to display nodes in a hierarchy. To give some background
on the control framework, several items can be associated with a node,
and the items are inserted into individual columns. Hence, this class
offers methods to add to columns, remove columns from a hierarchy, and
set individual column properties such as text width.
But what if we want to fill a hierarchy
with data? Since the system also supports other kinds of hierarchies (e.g.,
list-based hierarchies, simple hierarchies) and those hierarchies also
need to be filled, it would make sense to farm out this task to a common
base class. By inspecting the superclasses of the class CL_GUI_COLUMN_TREE,
you can investigate the inheritance relationship to identify and use a
class that will handle this task. To do this, return to the Class Builder
and from there:
- Select the class CL_ITEM_TREE_ CONTROL. Under this class you will
find public methods with names like ADD_NODES_AND_ITEMS. These methods
allow you to fill a wide range of hierarchies using a generic method.
- To continue to inspect the inheri- tance relationship, expand the
superclasses branch and move to the class CL_GUI_CONTROL. This class
is the base class for any kind of visual control attached to your dynpro
and provides control-independent methods for positioning, setting keyboard
focus, and the like. (See Figure 11.)
||The Browser-Like Features in the Object Navigator
Note that in Figure 10, the class in the
navigation frame and the display frame are the same (GUI_COLUMN_TREE),
but that in Figure 11, they differ from one another. When we navigate
to another object list, or when we navigate to another object using traditional
Workbench navigation (e.g., selecting CALL FUNCTION to launch the function
builder), the navigation frame and the detail frame will be out of synch.
This is designed to allow you to search for an existing class or function
module without leaving your current editor session. At any time, you can
synchronize the different frames by using the context menu (from object
list to object) or by pressing the Hierarchy button (from object
to object list) shown in Figure 7.
Helpful Shortcuts in the ABAP Editor
Within the framework of the new Workbench interface, the ABAP
Editor supports a variety of shortcuts to make your work easier
when editing source code. If you'd like to take advantage of these
time-saving shortcuts, we offer a quick overview here. They include:
- Windows shortcuts. The editor control is based on a
standard Windows DLL. This also means that the new ABAP Editor
supports Windows shortcuts, some of which are shown in the dropdown
menu in Figure 12 and in the table shown in Figure 13.
The complete list of available shortcuts can be found in the online
help for the ABAP Editor.
- Keyboard shortcuts. You can use the SHIFT, ARROW, and
SCROLL keys to move within the text. You can also use the TAB
key on marked text for source code indentation.
- Automatic text scrolling. As the cursor reaches the
editor's pane boundary, the source code scrolls automatically.
- Context menus and toolbars. The dropdown menus and toolbars
offer built-in functionality, including Find/ Restore and Comment
features, as shown in Figure 12.
- Drag and drop functionality. You are now able to move
source code from one location to another within the frame, or
from one object to another.
||Editor-Specific Context Menus
in the New Workbench
||Select one screen down
||Select to the begining of a line
||Move cursor to the first fully
||Select to the end of a line
||visible character to the entire text
||Call the find and replacing dialog
||Move cursor to the last fully visible character of the entire
||character of the entire text
||Delete characters backward, any
||Select entire text
||selected text is deleted
|Shift+up arrow key
||Select one line up
||Delet words backward
|Shift+down arrow key
||Select one line down
||Delete characters forward, any
|Shift+left arrow key
||Select one character to the left
||selected text is deleted
|Shift+right arrow key
||Select one character to the right
||Delete words forward
||Select one screen up
||Common Windows Shortcust Used
in the New ABAP Editor
Improvements to the ABAP Editor
Of course, ABAP developers spend most of their working time in the ABAP
Editor. SAP's Release 4.6 was designed to make this development time more
efficient. Block mode is a good example: in previous releases the ABAP
Editor was especially cumbersome to work with, given the local processing
power on a developer's PC or workstation. Although some developers may
work over a low-bandwith communication line with the backend system, the
majority of users are connected to a LAN. Taking this into account, we
integrated an editor control with plenty of nice desktop functions without
losing the strong backend integration.
You will also notice some changes onscreen.
For example, in earlier releases only the visible lines of an editor session
were transferred to the frontend; now you download the whole include in
one step. While this may add a little time to the process, it certainly
pays off, since you can now scroll the complete include locally at the
frontend without having to wait for an empty server slot. Many text operations
like cut and paste, search and replace, drag and drop, and upload and
download are also carried out locally. Even commenting out source code
and reverse are done immediately, and the local editor control keeps an
undo/redo buffer for fast error correction.
This means that you now access the server
only when you save your work, check the syntax, or navigate to another
object. For best processing performance, the ABAP Editor displays the
program text the way it is stored in the database, without any special
formatting according to your settings. To change the format, run a pretty
print before saving.
New Features in the ABAP Workbench
User Settings Dialog Options
The user settings dialog (see Figure 14) helps you to define
your preferences in the ABAP Editor, Workbench, and Class Builder. For
example, in the ABAP Editor, it offers the option to move from edit control
mode to table control mode. This is useful if, for example, you encounter
performance problems in a WAN using the control-based editor and you want
to switch to a table control-based editor that works in block mode. You
can also set the options to change the default graphic from the Workbench
screen by selecting Utilities ->Settings, choosing the tab Workbench
(General), and unchecking the background image option. We also recommend
using the table control editor mode for applying SAP source code modifications.
"Web Browser" Navigation Features As you select objects or move
along the inheritance relationship, the system maintains a navigation
stack that you can examine and use for fast selection. The navigation
toolbar also includes:
- Buttons for forward and backward navigation
- Bookmarks that you can set to each object list being displayed
- The ability to navigate from class to class
||Your Personal Workbench Settings
The Other Object Icon
This feature allows you to quickly move between different modes. For
example, imagine that during program editing you discover that you need
to look up a table definition. In previous releases, you would close the
editor mode, open up a new external mode, launch the dictionary transaction,
and display the table. In the new Workbench, the process is much faster.
Simply select the Other object icon shown in Figure 15.
A dialog pops up that allows you to work with any development object.
The system also automatically puts the selected object into the navigation
history for easy access. Using Other object is much faster than
creating a new mode, and you don't have to remember the transaction codes
or menu position - which is especially useful when you are working with
more exotic development object types like authorization objects.
||The Other Object Icon
Using Drag and Drop in the Workbench
One benefit of the new Workbench user interface is that you can enhance
existing applications using controls technology. For example, what if
you want to add some intranet pages to an application that provides ad
hoc information? The system offers the class CL_GUI_HTML_VIEWER for that
purpose. Follow these steps:
- Determine a screen to attach the HTML viewer by using the Screen
- Reserve some space on the screen (use the Screen Painter to position
and name a custom control container).
- Define two reference variables, one for the container and one for
the control, by using the appropriate ABAP Editor.
- In the Object Navigator, display the class CL_GUI_HTML_VIEWER by
following the steps listed in the previous sections.
- Select the class name CL_GUI_ HTML_VIEWER and drag and drop it into
your program. This inserts the pattern CREATE OBJECT.
- Select the SHOW_URL method and drop it into your program. This inserts
the CALL METHOD pattern into your program, as shown in Figure 16.
||Drag and Drop in the New Workbench
And That's Not All!
The new Workbench comes with a number of other helpful functions:
- Traditional Workbench navigation is still supported. For example,
you can monitor the navigation stack by pressing the Stack button (see
- The Workbench offers a personalized work list window where you can
keep a library of your favorite objects.
- Multiset functions like mass transport are available through context
menus. Simply select several objects and right-click (see Figure
18). Alternatively, you can drag object items from any given object
list and drop them into your work list window.
- The syntax check displays error messages in a docking container attached
to the bottom of the screen. Red stoplights indicate errors, while yellow
stoplights indicate warnings. The sys-tem corrects some misspellings
automatically if you activate the hotspot that precedes the error.
- Selecting the Full-Screen button, shown in Figure 19, will
hide all navigation containers.
- The Screen Painter in Release 4.6 comes with two new wizards to help
you create tab strips and table controls more quickly. The wizards lead
you through the creation process and explain every step in detail, as
shown in the example in Figure 20.
||The Full-Screen Button
||A New Screen Painter Wizard
Integrating Web Applications with the Workbench
The Workbench, along with all its new features and its integration with
tools such as the Class Builder and the ABAP Editor, also has the advantage
of being highly integrated with the Web appli- cation functions found
in the Web Application Builder. A detailed discussion of the Internet
Transaction Server (ITS) is beyond the scope of this article. However,
SAP offers direct support for the development of Easy Web Transactions
(formerly called Internet Application Components) inside the ABAP Workbench.
Easy Web Transactions are driven by a standard
SAP GUI session where the ITS sends the user's input from a Web browser
to a running SAP transaction. When the follow-up screen of the current
transaction arrives, the ITS merges the SAP GUI's output into HTML templates
and sends the result to the Web browser.
Since R/3 Release 3.1, the development
of suitable HTML templates has been done via SAP@Web Studio. Now, with
Release 4.6C, developers can take the HTML templates inside the R/3 system
and associate them with an Internet service name (in most cases, the name
of the underlying SAP transaction). You now can also generate HTML templates
from dynpros and attach MIME objects to your Web application.
Using the Workbench for Web Applications
How do Web applications work in the new Workbench? In some ways, a Web
application is like any ordinary ABAP program, as you can see in Figure
21. In the Object Navigator, the application is displayed in tree
form with suitable context menus. After entering the Object Navigator,
you then move automatically into the Web Application Builder. From there,
you can publish the whole Web application to the ITS and launch the service
in a Web browser. The integration allows you to attach flow files to your
service if you decide to decouple the flow logic from the underlying transaction
and call BAPIs instead.
||Business Functions and Business HTML in SAP's ABAP Development
One example of the ease of integration
is found in a BAPI browser application developed in Web Application Builder,
shown in Figure 22. The Object Navigator's ability to work so easily
with the Web Application Builder (along with the other tools discussed
earlier), is one of the best examples of how controls technology and objects
allow us to quickly integrate Internet technology into a single, integral
Workbench for SAP.
||BAPI Application Designed with Web Application Builder
As we have shown in this "tour," the new ABAP Development Workbench
has more than just a new look - the newly designed interface also brings
with it some powerful functionality on a number of development fronts.
The Object Navigator provides a new interface that allows you to more
easily browse and navigate various applications and tools. The improvements
to the processing capabilities, the ability to access reusable software
components, and the integration features in the new Workbench are designed
to take the high-performance tools available in SAP R/3 and make them
easier to use. Each feature and improvement is designed to streamline
the development process and lead to more reliable code. By taking advantage
of the features that the Workbench has to offer, you can accelerate your
development work and make your applications more enjoyable for end users.
Karl Kessler joined SAP in 1992. He is the
product manager of the ABAP Workbench and responsible
for all rollout activities. You can reach him
via e-mail at email@example.com.
Joachim Jakob is a software development
architect at SAP. He is responsible for the design
and implementation of the new Workbench.